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Stochastic economic model predictive control for renewable energy and ancillary services trading with storage (01a Articolo in rivista)

Santosuosso Luca, Camal Simon, Liberati Francesco, Di Giorgio Alessandro, Michiorri Andrea, Kariniotakis Georges

The provision of renewable-based ancillary services (AS) is paramount for the stable operation of power systems featuring high renewable penetration. The combined operation of storage with renewables enables aggregators to increase the reliability of their energy and frequency-control AS offers. Existing dispatch strategies for the supply of both energy and AS are usually rule-based or involve tracking a technical reference signal, hence economically suboptimal for aggregators. This study proposes a comprehensive decision framework in which first a stochastic optimization derives bids on energy and AS markets, then stochastic economic Model Predictive Control (SEMPC) optimizes the dispatch of the storage in order to maximize the profit and minimize the storage degradation, as a function of the predicted renewable production and the expected AS activation. The framework is applied to a real-world case study where storage combined with wind power participates in the energy market, the frequency containment market and the frequency restoration reserve market. The SEMPC-based approach increases market revenue by 15% compared to a standard reference tracking MPC, and reduces storage degradation by 23%. The stochastic formulation lowers the sensitivity of the economic objectives to renewable energy forecast errors, compared to deterministic approaches.
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