Research on nonlinear systems and control at the University Sapienza has been active since the early 70s and, historically, has played a major role worldwide. The geometric approach to nonlinear feedback design, developed in the late 70s, marked the beginning of a new area of research which, in the subsequent decades, has profoundly influenced the development of the entire field.
The concept of (nonlinear) feedback equivalence and of zero dynamics, their properties and implications in feedback design, are perhaps the most frequently used concepts in feedback stabilization. The geometric approach also plays a fundamental role in the analysis of systems evolving on Lie groups, with numer- ous applications to the control of spacecrafts and mobile robots. The natural evolution of the geometric approach to analysis and design of nonlinear systems led to a refinement of concepts underlying the design of nonlinear controllers to the purpose of shaping the steady-state behavior of a system. Currently, this line of research is pursued with the study of problems arising in the regulation of systems possessing unstable zero dynamics and in the development of methods for robust stabilization via measurement feedback. A general framework for robust stabilization reposes of the concept of filtered Lyapunov functions. Tools for the design of composite filtered Lyapunov functions have been de- veloped. Robust and nonlinear control techniques have proven useful to achieve control objectives in the case of restricted information structure, e.g. measurements taking val- ues only in a finite set and/or feedback delivered to the actuators erratically. A major challenge in the research on control with limited information is the design of controllers which are distributed over a network. In this case, the controllers cooperate to achieve a common goal but have access only to limited information provided by their neigh- bors. The notion of incremental generalized homogeneity has been recently introduced in the design of nonlinear stabilizing controllers. Stabilization of nonlinear systems with control and measurement delays. Global state estimators for systems with delays. State estimators and optimal control for noisy systems with non-Gaussian noise and packet loss. Stochastic delay identification. Analysis and design of real control systems integrat- ing devices and computational procedures in a digital context involves ad-hoc methods. Nonlinear discrete-time and sampled data systems are the subjects of an investigation developed at La Sapienza from the early 80s, in a still active cooperation with the Lab- oratoire des Signaux et Syste´ mes of the French CNRS. The research activity has been focused on solving nonlinear control problems in discrete-time and on finding digital solutions to continuous-time control systems. One of the major outcome of the investiga- tion has been the settlement of an original approach, mixed by algebraic and geometric concepts, used either to prove the existence of solutions in discrete-time or to compute approximated solutions in the digital context. Two aspects are at the bases of the more recent developments: a new representation of discrete-time dynamics, which provides a natural framework for comparing results from the continuous-time and discrete-time contexts, the concept of exact sampled model under feedback, which can be used to de- sign piecewise continuous controllers in a direct digital context. From the solution to feedback linearization, stabilization, regulation, observer theory, new research lines are in the direction of Lyapunov and passivity based design, inverse optimal control and time delayed systems in discrete-time and under sampling. Particular attention is devoted to the settlement of executable algorithms for computing the proposed solutions. Possible improvements in optimal control problems by means of piecewise continuous cost func- tions are also under investigation as a new research line in the framework of nonlinear Hamiltonian dynamics and switching control methods. This kind of approach brings to significant improvements when dealing with limited resources or under a high level deci- sion process on the cost of the action or on the priority of the intervention. Measurements devices, algorithms, data handling and transmission represent critical aspects in any dis- tributed control problem. The number of devices, their location, the energy consumption, the data-communication links, the distributed data handling, multi-consensus, load bal- ancing, and quality of experience evaluation and control are nowadays classical prob- lems in this context. New issues deal with dynamic sensor networks, where mobile platforms are assimilated to intelligent devices, in which motion planning and control problems pose additional requirements and make harder the solution of the task. The full problem formulation as a high dimensional nonlinear dynamics is a challenging in- terdisciplinary area of research towards easier and cheaper solutions to problems like surveillance, monitoring, decentralized and distributed control. Problems under inves- tigation in this field concern sensor and actuator devices, computation algorithms, local and global coordinated control, network communication protocols, data acquisition and fusion. Prof. Monaco is member of the Conseil exe´ cutif and of the Conseil strate´ gique of the Universita` Italo Francese and coordinator of the double degree in collaboration with the Stic& A Network of French Universities.
The applicative aspects of the research activities are carried out at the Systems and Control Laboratory, founded in 1995.